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The birth of "electricity"
Add time:2019-08-21    Click:114
When high technology goes deep into our lives, everything depends on electricity. The application of electricity is extremely extensive, and electric energy is widely used in various fields such as power, lighting, metallurgy, chemistry, textile, communication, broadcasting, etc. It is the main driving force for the development of science and technology and the leap of national economy. When electricity has not yet entered our lives, it is illuminated by some kerosene lamps, candles, etc. Production is still inefficient labor. It is the use of electricity, entering our lives, bringing convenience to our lives, enriching our lives, bringing about human progress and accelerating the development of society.
At present, there are two types of electric energy conversion in the world, magnetoelectricity and solar power generation. What is magnetoelectricity? A closed conductor that cuts magnetic lines of force in a magnetic field generates current. This was discovered by British scientist Faraday. An impeller is added to the D of the figure below, the impeller keeps rotating, and the conductor continuously cuts the magnetic lines in the magnetic field to generate an induced current.
So what is solar power? There is an important thing called a solar cell module. This thing is a semiconductor made of silicon. The sun shines on it, and after the absorption, the battery generates a different charge. An average solar cell module can generate 0.5 volts of direct current, and ten solar modules can generate about 4 volts of direct current. Since the electricity generated by this method is direct current, it can be put into use after being converted into alternating current by the inverter.
Photovoltaic power generation is safe, high reliability, high life (crystal silicon battery life can be as long as 20-35 years), and energy is inexhaustible. Home photovoltaic power generation can not only be used by itself, but also can be sold to the grid with endless electricity. However, the construction is limited by the environment, the laying area is large, and the conversion rate is not high. The state strongly supports the construction of household photovoltaic power generation.
Let's take a look at some other power generation methods (both are magnetoelectric)
Hydroelectric power
Hydroelectric power uses hydropower that flows from high places such as rivers and lakes to low places, converts the potential energy contained therein into the kinetic energy of the turbine, and then uses the turbine as the motive force to drive the generator to generate electricity. The hydraulic power (with the water head) is used to push the hydraulic machine (turbine) to turn the water energy into mechanical energy. If another mechanical machine (generator) is connected to the turbine, the electric machine can be powered as the turbine rotates. For electric energy. In a sense, hydropower is the process by which the energy of water is converted into mechanical energy and then converted into electrical energy. Because the power voltage generated by the hydropower plant is low, to be transported to users who are far away, the voltage must be increased by the transformer, and then transmitted to the substation of the user concentration area by the empty frame transmission line, and finally reduced to suitable for the family. The voltage of the user and the plant's electrical equipment is delivered to the various factories and homes by the distribution line.
Hydropower is a renewable energy source with less impact on the environment. In addition to providing cheap electricity, it also has the following advantages: controlling flooding, providing irrigation water, improving river shipping, and improving the transportation, electricity supply and economy of the region, especially tourism and aquaculture.
Pumped storage power station
As the name implies, water is pumped from a low reservoir to a high place to generate electricity again. Why do you want to do this? At night, the electricity consumption is reduced, and many power stations have sufficient power generation. At this time, the excess electricity is used to pump the water from the lower reservoir to the upstream reservoir, and the water is saved as potential energy. In the daytime, continue to recycle electricity and convert water from potential energy into electricity. The emergence of pumped-storage hydropower stations solved the problem of imbalance of peaks and valleys of electricity consumption, thus playing the role of “peak-shaving and valley-filling”. It is the object of vigorous development of all countries.
Tidal power generation
In the bay or the tidal estuary, it can be seen that there are two fluctuations in seawater or river water every day. As a natural phenomenon, tides provide convenience for human navigation, fishing and salt drying. This phenomenon is mainly caused by the lunar force of the moon, the sun, and the effect of the Earth's rotation. At high tide, a large amount of seawater surges and has great kinetic energy. At the same time, the water level gradually rises and kinetic energy is converted into potential energy. At the time of the ebb, the sea water rushed back, the water level declined, and the potential energy was turned into kinetic energy. The kinetic energy and potential energy of seawater during exercise are collectively referred to as tidal energy. The tide is a kind of renewable energy with huge reserves, inexhaustible, inexhaustible, no need to mine and transport, clean and pollution-free. Construction of tidal power stations, no need for immigration, no flooding of land, no environmental pollution problems,
The principle of the tidal hydropower station and the conventional hydropower station are the same, and all need a certain drop. Some tidal hydropower stations are one-way power generation for single pants, which is to generate electricity during high tide or low tide. There is also a single-bank two-way power generation that can generate electricity in both high and low tides. The technology related to tidal power generation is extremely rapid, and various mechanical devices that convert tidal energy into mechanical energy have been developed, such as propeller turbines, axial flow turbines, open-circulating turbines, etc., and Japan has even begun to use artificial satellites. Trend information materials. The use of tidal power generation is becoming more mature and has entered a practical stage. Tidal power generation is a renewable energy source that does not affect the ecological balance. Get strong support from the government.
Thermal power station
There are three types of energy conversion processes in thermal power generation: fuel chemical energy → steam heat → mechanical energy → electric energy production process. Simply speaking, the fuel is heated, the water is heated, and the high-temperature and high-pressure superheated steam is formed. Then the steam enters the steam turbine along the pipeline to expand and work. The high-speed rotation of the turbine rotor is driven to drive the rotor (electromagnetic field) of the generator to rotate, and the stator coil cuts the magnetic lines and emits electric energy. Then, use the step-up transformer to rise to the system voltage, connect to the system and connect the power to the outside. The finally cooled steam is further pumped back to the boiler by the feed water pump to repeatedly participate in the above cycle.
Geothermal power generation
Geothermal heat is the heat generated by the decay of radioactive materials such as uranium, potassium and thorium inside the earth. Mainly in hot springs, boiling springs, hot water rivers, etc. The process of converting underground thermal energy into mechanical energy and then converting mechanical energy into electrical energy. According to the form of geothermal energy, his thermal energy can be divided into five types: steam type, hot water type, dry heat rock type, ground pressure type and magma type. From the perspective of geothermal energy development and energy conversion, the above five types of geothermal resources can be used for power generation. However, the development and utilization of the above-mentioned two types of resources are steam type and hot water type. The advantages of geothermal power generation are: generally no fuel is required, and the cost of power generation is lower than that of hydropower, thermal power, and nuclear power in most cases. The utilization time of the equipment is long, and the investment in construction is generally lower than that of the hydropower station, and is not affected by the rain season. The impact, stable power generation, can greatly reduce environmental pollution, geothermal resources are inexhaustible, clean, renewable energy, Tibet's geothermal resources in China account for 80% of the country. The famous Yangbajing geothermal field is the largest wet steam field being developed in China. The construction of thermal power plants does not require great environmental requirements, and construction in some remote areas has provided great assistance to local power supply.
Magma power generation
Japan also began experiments on high-temperature volcanic rock power generation in 1980. Japan's new energy development agency successfully extracted 190 °C high-temperature hot water from the underground high-temperature rock mass at 3,500 meters. The method is to drill two wells in the granite body, pour cold water into one of the wells, and then extract high temperature hot water from another well. Inject 1.1 tons of cold water per minute to continuously recover 0.6 tons of high temperature water at 190 °C. In 1989, the Ministry of New Energy Development of Japan used high-temperature rock masses to continuously obtain high-temperature hot water and steam. They drilled two 1800-meter deep wells at a distance of 35 meters, and poured cold water into one well at a flow rate of 0.5 tons per minute. The water extracted from the other well was heated to above 100 °C by the rock mass. Their goal is to try to turn the cool water into steam at 200 ° C and eventually generate electricity.
nuclear power plant
Nuclear power plants use the nuclear fission reaction to release energy and generate electricity through energy conversion. The raw material for the nuclear power plant is uranium, which is fissured in a large "boiler", that is, the reactor, generating a large amount of heat. The pump delivers the coolant to the large "boiler", which is heated and sent to the steam generator, which produces steam from the hot water. The coolant then continues to be delivered to the boiler through the pump. This is called a loop. There is a loop in one loop. The steam generator in the first loop drives the steam turbine after steam is generated. The steam turbine drives the generator to generate electricity.
This is the second loop. So is there still a triple loop? Certainly, the steam in the second circuit is sent to the condenser for cooling after passing through the steam turbine. At this time, it is cooled by seawater, then condensed into water, and then sent to the steam generator in the first loop to continue to generate steam. At the same time, it also took the heat of the abandoned power station. The power generation of nuclear power stations is difficult to adjust, so where is the excess electricity going? This excess electricity was sent to the pumped water power station. Therefore, the pumped-storage hydropower station is the "twin" brother of the nuclear power plant. Nuclear power plants have little environmental pollution, and if a nuclear leak occurs, it will cause devastating damage to the surrounding area.
Wind power generation
Wind power is mainly composed of three parts: the fan blade, the chassis, and the metal frame. The wind drives the rotation of the blades, and then increases the speed through the accelerator to improve the power generation efficiency. Wind power is one of the most promising ways to use clean renewable energy. When the wind encounters obstacles, it consumes its energy. The construction of wind turbines is chosen on a flat plain or at sea. In some European countries, offshore wind turbines are extremely popular. The famous "London array" is an offshore wind power generation. project.
Electricity is an indispensable energy in our modern life. The economic loss caused by a city power outage is immeasurable. The electricity we use now mainly relies on thermal power generation. The thermal power generation is mainly coal power generation, and the combustion of coal gives The air has brought pollution, which has affected the health of the local residents. The burning of coal has increased the greenhouse effect and caused irreparable damage to the surrounding ecological development. Some clean energy sources are not efficient, so save electricity and save water from me.

Disclaimer: This article comes from individual, KRECO has the right of final interpretation.